December 2007


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MIS 2-INCISION HIP REPLACEMENT

Zimmer MIS 2-Incision Hip Replacement is a minimally invasive alternative to the traditional hip replacement surgery. The minimally invasive surgery is done by making two small incisions about 1½ to 2 inches each to separate the muscles and tendons to access the hip joint as opposed to the traditional hip replacement surgery which typically involves a 10- to 12-inch incision and cutting of those tissues. For the MIS 2-Incision surgery, orthopedic surgeons trained in minimally invasive surgical techniques use specialized instruments to perform the surgery.

The MIS 2-Incision Hip Replacement technique considerably reduces the recovery time as muscles and tendons around the hip joint are not generally cut as they are in the traditional hip replacement surgery. So there is less tissue trauma involved in this minimally invasive approach resulting in faster and less painful rehabilitation of the patient which in turn results in quicker return to work and daily activities. Also, because smaller incisions are made, the surgery leaves smaller scars. Other benefits of this surgery are shorter hosptial stay and reduced blood loss compared to traditional hip replacement surgery.

Performance-wise, the hip replaced through MIS 2-Incision Hip Replacement performs the same as that through the traditinal approach. Also, the replacement hip – comprised of a stem, ball and socket – is the same high quality, clinically proven prosthesis that is used in traditional surgery.

Anybody who is a right candidate for traditional hip replacement surgery is also a right candidate for MIS 2-Incision Hip Replacement except those who are extremely overweight, are very muscular, have recently had a blood clot or an unstable medication that places them at higher risk for complications, or those who have already had hip replacement surgery on the same hip.

Read here for information about a more bone-conserving approach to hip replacement called Birmingham hip resurfacing surgery or BHR.

Cost and Availability of MIS 2-Incision Hip Replacement

In the US, MIS 2-Incision Hip Replacement surgery can be very costly. If you are uninsured or underinsured then this could translate into a substantial out-of-pocket expense for your orthopedic treatment.

Healthbase offers a large network of international partner hospitals which offer the best MIS 2-Incision Hip Replacement surgery overseas at an affordable price.

Register or login to get your FREE personalized quote for a cheap Hip Replacement surgery abroad (MIS 2-Incision hip replacement surgery or traditional hip replacement surgery).

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Healthbase is the trusted source for global medical choices, connecting patients to leading hospitals around the world, through secure and information-rich web portal. To learn more, visit: http://www.healthbase.com Login to get FREE quote. Access is free.Healthbase Logo

In vitro fertilization

What is fertility?
Fertility is the natural capability of giving life. As a measure, “Fertility Rate” is the number of children born per couple, person or population. Infertility is a deficient fertility.

Both women and men have hormonal cycles which determine both when a woman can achieve pregnancy and when a man is most fertile.

Women’s fertility peaks around the age of 23-24, and often deteriorates after 30. With a rise in women postponing pregnancy, this can create an infertility problem.

In vitro fertilization
The term in vitro is used to refer to any biological procedure that is performed outside the organism it would normally be occurring in.

In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a technique in which egg cells are fertilised by sperm outside the woman’s womb, in vitro. IVF is a major treatment in infertility when other methods of assisted reproductive technology have failed. The process involves hormonally controlling the ovulatory process, removing ova (eggs) from the woman’s ovaries and letting sperm fertilise them in a fluid medium. The fertilised egg (zygote) is then transferred to the patient’s uterus with the intent to establish a successful pregnancy. Babies conceived as a result of IVF are also known as test tube babies.

For IVF to be successful, it requires healthy ova, sperm that can fertilise, and a uterus that can maintain a pregnancy. Cost considerations generally place IVF as a treatment when other less expensive options have failed.

Success rates
While the overall live birth rate via IVF in the U.S. is about 27% per cycle (33% pregnancy rate), the chances of a successful pregnancy via IVF vary widely based on the age of the woman (or, more precisely, on the age of the eggs involved). Where the woman’s own eggs are used as opposed to those of a donor, for women under 35, the pregnancy rate is commonly approximately 43% per cycle (36.5% live birth), while for women over 40, the rate falls drastically – to only 4% for women over 42.

Complications
The major complication of IVF is the risk of multiple births. This is directly related to the practice of transferring multiple embryos at embryo transfer. Multiple births are related to increased risk of pregnancy loss, obstetrical complications, prematurity, and neonatal morbidity with the potential for long term damage.

For affordable IVF treatment overseas, please contact Healthbase. Healthbase is a medical tourism expert connecting patients to leading healthcare facilities worldwide. Healthbase also offers medical tourism plans for self-insured businesses looking for affordable healthcare benefits for employees.

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Healthbase is the trusted source for global medical choices, connecting patients to leading hospitals around the world, through secure and information-rich web portal. To learn more, visit: http://www.healthbase.com Login to get FREE quote. Access is free.Healthbase Logo

DENTAL SURGERY

Dental surgery is any of a number of medical procedures which involve artificially modifying the development or arrangement of teeth in the mouth.

Dental surgery falls into 4 major categories:
1. Endodontics: It deals with the tooth pulp and the tissues surrounding the root of a tooth. The pulp (containing nerves, arterioles and venules as well as lymphatic tissue and fibrous tissue) can become diseased or injured, and is often unable to repair itself; if it dies, endodontic treatment is required.

2. Prosthodontics: It is the specialty of implant, esthetic and reconstructive dentistry. It involves the restoration of oral function through prostheses and restorations (i.e. complete dentures, crowns, implant retained/supported restorations). Cosmetic dentistry, implants and joint problems all fall under the field of prosthodontics.

3. Orthodontics: It is a specialty of dentistry that is concerned with the study and treatment of malocclusions (improper bites), which may be a result of tooth irregularity, disproportionate jaw relationships, or both. Orthodontic treatment can focus on dental displacement only, or can deal with the control and modification of facial growth. Orthodontic treatment can be carried out for purely aesthetic reasons – improving the general appearance of patients’ teeth and face for cosmetic reasons – but treatment is often prescribed for practical reasons, providing the patient with a functionally improved bite (occlusion).

4. Periodontics: It is branch of dentistry which studies supporting structures of teeth (supporting tissues are known as periodontium) and diseases and conditions that affect them. It involves treating diseases and conditions of the periodontium. Periodontists specialize in the management of patients with periodontitis, gum recession and surgical placement of implants.

For affordable dental surgery overseas, please contact Healthbase. Healthbase is a dental tourism expert and medical tourism expert connecting patients to leading dental offices worldwide and leading healthcare facilities worldwide. Healthbase also offers dental tourism plans and medical tourism plans for self-insured businesses looking for affordable dental care benefits and affordable healthcare benefits for employees.

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Healthbase is the trusted source for global medical choices, connecting patients to leading hospitals around the world, through secure and information-rich web portal. To learn more, visit: http://www.healthbase.com Login to get FREE quote. Access is free.Healthbase Logo

WHAT IS CANCER?

Cancer, which causes about 13% of all deaths worldwide, is a group of diseases in which cells are:
1. aggressive - grow and divide without respect to normal limits,
2. invasive - invade and destroy adjacent tissues, and
3. sometimes metastatic - spread to other locations in the body.
These three malignant properties of cancers differentiate them from benign tumors, which are self-limited in their growth and do not invade or metastasize (although some benign tumor types are capable of becoming malignant).

CAUSES OF CANCER

Cancer may be caused by:

- Chemical carcinogens such as tobacco smoke and alcohol
- Ionizing radiation such as radon gas and UV rays from the sun
- Ifectious diseases associated with viruses like human papillomavirus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human T-lymphotropic virus
- Hormonal imbalances
- Immune system dysfunction like HIV
- Heredity

Other cancer-promoting genetic abnormalities may be randomly acquired through errors in DNA replication, or are inherited, and thus present in all cells from birth. Complex interactions between carcinogens and the host genome may explain why only some develop cancer after exposure to a known carcinogen. New aspects of the genetics of cancer pathogenesis, such as DNA methylation, and microRNAs are increasingly being recognized as important.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

Roughly, cancer symptoms can be divided into three groups:
- Local symptoms: unusual lumps or swelling (tumor), hemorrhage (bleeding), pain and/or ulceration. Compression of surrounding tissues may cause symptoms such as jaundice.
- Symptoms of metastasis (spreading): enlarged lymph nodes, cough and hemoptysis, hepatomegaly (enlarged liver), bone pain, fracture of affected bones and neurological symptoms. Although advanced cancer may cause pain, it is often not the first symptom.
- Systemic symptoms: weight loss, poor appetite and cachexia (wasting), excessive sweating (night sweats), anemia and specific paraneoplastic phenomena, i.e. specific conditions that are due to an active cancer, such as thrombosis or hormonal changes.

Every symptom in the above list can be caused by a variety of conditions (a list of which is referred to as the differential diagnosis). Cancer may be a common or uncommon cause of each item.

TREATMENT

Once diagnosed, cancer is usually treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. As research develops, treatments are becoming more specific for different varieties of cancer. There has been significant progress in the development of targeted therapy drugs that act specifically on detectable molecular abnormalities in certain tumors, and which minimize damage to normal cells. Cancer may be treated by:

- Surgery
- Radiation therapy
- Chemotherapy
- Targeted therapies
- Immunotherapy
- Hormonal therapy
- Symptom control

PROGNOSIS
Cancer has a reputation for being a deadly disease. While this certainly applies to certain particular types, this is increasingly being overturned by advances in medical care. Some types of cancer have a prognosis that is substantially better than nonmalignant diseases such as heart failure and stroke.

Cancer patients, for the first time in the history of oncology, are visibly returning to the athletic arena and workplace. Patients are living longer with either quiescent persistent disease or even complete, durable remissions.

For affordable cancer treatment overseas, please contact Healthbase. Healthbase is a medical tourism expert connecting patients to leading healthcare facilities worldwide. Healthbase also offers medical tourism plans for self-insured businesses looking for affordable healthcare benefits for employees.

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