Apollo Hospitals Group


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Breast Augumentation

Provided by Wockhardt Hospital
Brought to you by Healthbase

If you have any or some of the underlying conditions, you may want to consider the option of breast reduction

  • your breasts appear too small in proportion to your body frame
  • often clothes that fit well around your hips are too large at the bustline
  • wearing a swimsuit or form- fitting top makes you feel self-conscious
  • post childbirth your breasts have become smaller and lost their firmness
  • weight loss has changed the size and shape of your breasts
  • one of your breasts is noticeably smaller than the other

During the consultation, you will be asked to point out the exact areas which you would like to see improved. This would include your desired breast size as well as anything else about your breasts that you would like to see improved. This will help your plastic surgeon to understand your expectations and determine whether they can realistically be achieved.

BREAST AUGMENTATION SURGERY EVALUATION

 

After examining your breasts, your plastic surgeon may perhaps take photographs for your medical record. In case, your breasts are sagging, a breast lift may be recommended in conjunction with augumentation.

A detailed medical history is very important, especially family history of breast cancer and previous mammograms.

No scientific evidence suggests that breast augmentation increases the risk of breast cancer. However, the presence of breast implants makes it more technically difficult to take and read mammograms. Especially, for women who perhaps because of their family history or other reasons are at higher risk for breast cancer.

Any plans to lose a significant amount of weight must be discussed with your plastic surgeon. You may be advised by your plastic surgeon to stabilize your weight prior to undergoing surgery.

Any plans of pregnancy in future, should be mentioned to your surgeon. Pregnancy can have an effect on the long-term results of your breast augmentation as it can alter your breast size in an unpredictable way. There is no evidence that pregnancy or your ability to breast-feed will be affected by breast implants, but any queries about these matters should be discussed with your plastic surgeon.

 

PREPARATION FOR SURGERY

Quite frequently, your plastic surgeon may recommend a baseline mammogram before surgery and another mammographic examination some months after surgery.

You will be asked to stop smoking well in advance of surgery if you smoke. Increased
bleeding can be caused by aspirin and certain anti-inflammatory drugs. It is therefore recommended that you avoid taking these medications for a period of time before surgery. Your surgeon will provide you with additional pre-operative instructions as well.

Breast augmentation is usually performed on an outpatient basis. Going home after a few hours may be permitted, unless you and your plastic surgeon have determined that you will stay in the hospital or surgical facility overnight.

 

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Breast Reduction

Provided by Wockhardt Hospital
Brought to you by Healthbase

WHO NEED BREAST REDUCTION?
 

If you have any or some of the underlying conditions, you may want to consider the option of breast reduction –

 

  • your breasts appear too large in proportion to your body frame
  • heavy, pendulous breasts having nipples and areolas pointed downward
  • one breast is much larger than the other
  • weight of your breasts cause pain in back, neck or shoulder
  • skin irritation beneath your breasts
  • tight bra straps resulting in indentations in your shoulders
  • size and weight of your breasts restrict the physical activity
  • the largeness of your breasts resulting in dissatisfaction or self-consciousness

During the consultation, you will be asked to point out the exact areas which you would like to see improved. This would include your desired breast size as well as anything else about your breasts that you would like to see improved.

This will help your plastic surgeon to understand your expectations and determine whether they can realistically be achieved.

Subsequent childbirth and breast feeding must be discussed with your surgeon.

 
BREAST REDUCTION SURGERY EVALUATION
 

After examining your breasts, your plastic surgeon will perhaps take measurements & photographs for your medical record. Factors like the size and shape of your breasts, the quality of your skin, and the placement of the nipples and areolas will be carefully evaluated.

A detailed medical history will be taken. Past and future weight loss should also be discussed.

 
HOW BREAST REDUCTION SURGERY IS PERFORMED
 

Quite frequently three incisions are involved in the method of reducing the breasts. The first incision is made around the areola. The second runs vertically from the bottom edge of the areola to the crease underneath the breast. The third incision follows the natural curve of the breast crease.

After the excess breast tissue, fat and skin have been removed by the surgeon, the nipple and areola are shifted to a higher position. Liposuction might be employed to improve the contour under the arm.

Generally, since the nipples and areolas remain attached to underlying mounds of tissue, the preservation of sensation is retained. This method might help to retain the ability to breast-feed, although this cannot be guaranteed.

Rarely, in case of extremely large breasts, the nipples and areolas may need to be completely detached before they are shifted to a higher level. In such cases, you may have to decide to sacrifice sensation and the possibility of breast-feeding in order to achieve your desired breast size.

UNDERSTANDING RISKS
 

A few potential complications that may be discussed with you would include bleeding, infection and reactions to anesthesia.

Post Reduction, it is possible that the breasts may not be perfectly symmetrical or the nipple height may vary slightly.

Desired minor adjustments, if any, can be made at a later time. In rare cases, permanent loss of sensation in the nipples or breasts may occur. In certain instances where incisions may have healed poorly, Revisionary Surgery is sometimes helpful.
In the case of injury to or loss of the nipple and areola which is usually an unlikely event, they usually can be satisfactorily reconstructed using skin grafts.

Following the advice and instructions of your plastic surgeon, both pre and post surgery is advisable as it can help to lessen certain risks.

A detailed information booklet will be provided with instructions and precautions for the immediate and early postoperative period.

This will also discuss the sequelae of Breast Reduction Surgery.

HOW WOULD THE INITIAL LOOK AND FEEL BE?
 

In the post surgery days, you will be encouraged to get out of bed for short periods of time. After considerable time, more comfortable movement will be possible.

Surgical drains, if any, will be removed in a day or two after surgery. At the same time your dressings may also be changed or removed. Wearing a support bra for a few weeks will be instructed. This has to be continued until the swelling and discoloration of your breasts diminishes. Generally, stitches will be removed in stages beginning about one week after surgery. You may realize that you feel less sensation in the nipple and areola areas, which is usually temporary. For sensation to return to normal it may take weeks, months or even more than a year. Your breasts may also require some time to assume a more natural shape. Incisions will initially be red or pink in color and will remain this way for many months following surgery.

BREAST REDUCTION & LIFT are in locations easily concealed by clothing, even low-cut necklines.

 
WHEN CAN MY NORMAL ACTIVITIES BE RESUMED?
 

Post breast reduction surgery, it is often possible to resume work within just a couple of weeks, depending upon your job. Quite often, you can resume most of your normal activities, including some of your mild exercises, after several weeks.

Experiencing some mild periodical discomfort during this time might persist, but such feelings are normal. Severe pains should be reported to your doctor.

Any sexual activity should be abstained from for a minimum of one week. Your plastic surgeon might advise you to wait longer. After that you must be extremely gentle with your breasts for at least the next six weeks.

 
HOW LONG WILL THE RESULTS LAST?
 

Your breast size should remain fairly constant unless you gain or loose a significant amount of weight or become pregnant. However natural factors like gravity and aging will eventually affect the size and shape of virtually every woman’s breasts.

But certainly without the excessive weight of large breasts, you may discover greater enjoyment in playing sports and engaging in physical activity.

Incisions from your breast reductions surgery will heal and fade over time. It is important to realvize, however, that the incision lines will be permanently visible, more so in some individuals that others. Fortunately the incisions for breast reduction are in locations easily concealed in clothing, even low-cut necklines.

 

 

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Abdominoplasty(Tummy Tuck)

Provided by Wockhardt Hospital
Brought to you by Healthbase

WHO NEED ABDOMINOPLASTY ?
 

If you have any or some of the underlying conditions, you may want to consider this option.

 

  • abdominal skin that is excess or sagging
  • a protruding abdomen that is out of proportion to the rest of your body
  • abdominal muscles that have been separated and weakened
  • excess fatty tissue that is concentrated in your abdomen

Any plans of pregnancy in future or of losing a significant amount of weight must be discussed with your plastic surgeon. Any resultant scarring from previous abdominal surgery may limit the results of your Abdominoplasty.

The surgeon will examine you and consider factors like the amount of excess skin and the state of your abdominal muscles.

These will determine the exact procedure that you will need.

POST SURGERY / PRE SURGERY RESULTS

Your firmer and flatter abdomen will enhance your body contour as a result of Abdominoplasty. Wearing certain styles of clothing will be easier and comfortable. You will be more confident about your appearance.

The incisions from the procedure will heal and fade over time. However, one needs to understand that the incision lines will be permanently visible. In a few cases they may eventually be only faint lines. Certain individuals may have incision lines that are more noticeable. Fortunately, the incisions for your Abdominoplasty are usually in locations concealed by most bathing suits and undergarments.

Wearing a support garment for several weeks may be instructed.
Your abdomen should remain firmer and flatter for many years subject to your gaining or losing a significant amount of weight or becoming pregnant. However, factors like gravity and the effects of aging will eventually take their toll.

In case, after a few years, you again become dissatisfied with the appearance of your abdomen, you may choose to undergo a second procedure to restore a more youthful body contour.

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©2006 Healthbase Online Inc. All rights reserved.  |  About us
The contents or materials provided in this website are for general information only and are not intended as medical advice.

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Eat Smart

By Ms Melissa Aiyathurai-Johnston
Dietitian, Raffles Hospital

Brought to you by Healthbase

 

Food, food, glorious food! Food makes up a big part of our life. Besides providing nutritional benefits, food is also a source of enjoyment, an adventure and it tastes great!

Despite huge and beneficial gains in knowledge about nutrition over recent years, healthy eating has become harder because of the way we live and eat today. There is less reliance on home cooked meals and if we are not mindful, our meals may not be necessarily healthy. They may not be complete (e.g. not being served with enough vegetables) or the portion sizes may be too large.

In addition, the modern diet is usually overloaded with calories for energy compared to the amount we expend, has too much fat (especially saturated fat), sugar and salt and lacking in fruits, vegetables, fibre and dairy products.

This state of “over nutrition” has seen an alarming rise in the incidence of chronic lifestyle diseases. Today 1 out of 3 Singaporeans are overweight or obese which sets the scene for other conditions such as diabetes and heart disease. Excessive fat or salt and the lack of fibre have also been linked with an increase risk of certain cancers (e.g. breast, bowel, stomach), diabetes, stroke, hypertension and osteoporosis to name a few.

There is no secret to healthy eating. You just need to “eat smart”!

Enjoy a wide variety of foods
Add the grains and legumes
Trim the fat

Shake the habit – reduce your salt intake
Munch those fruits and vegetables
Alcohol – enjoy in moderation
Reduce your sugar intake
Track your weight

Enjoy a wide variety of foods
Variety is the spice of life! Everyday your body needs nutrients and other healthful substances (such as antioxidants) that only a wide variety of foods can provide. Most foods and beverages are made up of more than one nutrient, however no one food or food category has them all.

Add grains and legumes
These low fat foods should make up a large proportion of your meals. This group including bread, cereals, rice, pasta and other foods made from grains provides you with carbohydrate (your body’s fuel), B vitamins, fibre and a number of minerals. Legumes (e.g. peas, beans and lentils) provide you with good amounts of protein (important for vegetarians), B vitamins and fibre.

Having more soluble fibre in your diet, such as the type found in legumes will help to lower your cholesterol. The slow digesting carbohydrate they contain will also help those trying to control their weight or diabetics with their blood sugar control.

Trim the fat
Reducing your fat intake will lower your risk of becoming overweight which reduces your chance of certain conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, hypertension and certain cancers. Reducing your saturated fat intake will also go a long way to help keep your cholesterol in check.

Removing the skin from poultry and limit your intake of fatty meat such as pork belly, luncheon meat. When dining away from home choose more soup based dishes which are low in fat and limit those dishes made with coconut milk.

Shake the habit – reduce your salt intake
Too much salt has been linked to the development of high blood pressure or hypertension. The average diet contains more sodium than actually required.

One way to reduce your sodium intake is by tasting your food before adding salt. Also limit or avoid high sodium condiments such as soy sauce, oyster sauce, tomato ketchup. Opt for herbs, spices, chili or lime juice to add flavour instead.

Munch those fruit and vegetables
Besides being an excellent source of fibre, this low calorie, nutrient dense group provides you with essential vitamins and minerals, antioxidants, and phytochemicals that may not be present in other groups of food. Studies have shown that those people with a high intake of fruits and vegetables have a low rate of heart disease and cancer. Aim for 2 servings of fruit and vegetables daily.

Alcohol – enjoy in moderation
A moderate to heavy intake of alcohol has been associated with high blood pressure and certain cancers. An excessive intake can also lead to weight gain as gram for gram alcohol has almost twice the calories of carbohydrate or protein.

A safe intake would be no more than 2 standard drinks a day for women and no more than 4 for men with 2 alcohol free days per week.

Reduce the sugar intake
Food high in sugar tend to be “empty calories” as they have no essential fibre, vitamins or minerals and can sometimes displace more nutritious food. Most foods high in sugar also tend to also be high in fat, which if taken in excess can lead to weight gain. It is best to enjoy these foods in moderation.

Track your weight
A balance between the right food and regular exercise will ensure that your weight is healthy. Choosing low fat meals with ample carbohydrates, vegetables, fruit and protein will help you lose excessive weight, if you need to and help you to stay slim if you do not.

Be careful of fad diets or diets that offer fast weight loss as they more often do not change your eating habits and are nutritionally unbalanced. Once you go off them, the weight tends to come back straight away.

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©2006 Healthbase Online Inc. All rights reserved. | About us
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Lipoplasty (Liposuction)

Provided by Wockhardt Hospital
Brought to you by Healthbase

Women and men who are of relatively normal weight but have isolated fat pockets causing certain areas of their body to appear disproportionate are particularly well-suited to Liposuction (lipoplasty). These localized fat deposits may at times be inherited traits that normally are impervious to dieting or exercise. Liposuction is often the only way to eliminate them. Though it is possible to undergo liposuction at almost any age, best results can be obtained if your skin still has enough elasticity to achieve a smooth contour following fat removal. Inelastic skin as in some older patients may not redrape well making a skin tightening procedure inevitable.
Consider yourself to be a good candidate for liposuction if you either have localized excess fat or if you desire contouring in any of the following areas:

  • cheeks, jowls and neck
  • upper arms
  • breast or chest areas
  • back
  • abdomen and waist
  • hips and buttocks
  • inner and outer thighs
  • inner knee
  • calves and ankles

Sometimes Liposuction may be used to treat a condition called gynecomastia, or male breast enlargement, which frequently occurs among both teenage and adult males.

Do not consider Liposuction a substitute for overall weight loss.
 
Liposuction is not an effective treatment for cellulite (a condition that gives the skin an uneven, dimpled appearance) as well. To tackle these problem alternative treatments may be considered, in some cases.
INDIVIDUAL CONSULTATION
Considering the individual factors, not everyone will achieve the same results from Liposuction. Your unique characteristics will be considered by your plastic surgeon in determining the most effective treatment. In the consultation process, you will be asked to specify the exact areas which you would like to see improved. Your surgeon will thus understand your expectations and determine whether they can be achieved realistically. Your current weight and your plan to lose or gain weight in the future will be evaluating factors in your liposuction.

Your unique characteristics will be considered by your plastic surgeon in determining the most effective treatment. In the consultation process, you will be asked to specify the exact areas which you would like to see improved. Your surgeon will thus understand your expectations and determine whether they can be achieved realistically. Your current weight and your plan to lose or gain weight in the future will be evaluating factors in your liposuction.

HOW LIPOSUCTION IS PERFORMED
The process begins by first inserting a small, hollow tube, called a cannula, through one or more tiny incisions near the area to be suctioned and fat is removed. Incisions, usually less than one-quarter inch in length are placed as inconspicuously as possible, mostly within skin folds or contour lines. A vacuum pressure unit is connected by tubing to the cannula. Under the surgeon’s guidance the suction device literally vacuums away the unwanted fat.
UNDERSTANDING RISKS
Fortunately for patients significant complications from Liposuction are infrequent. Year after year multitudes of people, who have undergone liposuction experience no major problems and are pleased with the results. However one should be aware of both the benefits and risks when considering surgery.

A personal discussion on the subject of risks and potential complications of surgery between you and your surgeon can prove helpful.

A detailed information booklet will be provided with instructions and precautions for the immediate and early postoperative period. This will also discuss the sequeal of Liposuction.

RECOVERY
Post surgery you will be taken into a recovery area where you will be closely monitored. Going home after a few hours probably might be permitted, although some patients may stay overnight in the hospital or surgical facility.
RESULTS OF YOUR LIPOSUCTION
Liposuction before and after image Areas of fatty deposits that previously created unflattering bulges and perhaps made it difficult to feel comfortable in your clothing or caused self-consciousness will be reduced by Liposuction surgery. The appearance of your new, slimmer contour may be delayed due to factors such as fluid retention following surgery and prolonged swelling. Because of the gradual healing process you should expect to wait a while to see the final results of your liposuction.
HOW lONG WILL THE RESULTS LAST?
As long as you maintain your postoperative weight the results of liposuction will be permanent. In case you gain a few extra pounds, you may realize that the weight is distributed more evenly instead of accumulating in the problematic areas of the past. A touchup might be desired occasionally to further improve the results in the area that has been suctioned. The additional treatment can sometimes be performed under local anesthesia.

Your progress will be evaluated in your visits to your plastic surgeon’s office for follow-up care at prescribed intervals.

Please keep in mind your relationship with your plastic surgeon does not end when you leave the operating room. For any queries or concerns during your recovery, or additional information at a later time, you should contact your surgeon.

 

 

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Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG)

Provided by Escorts Heart Institute
Brought to you by Healthbase

Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) involves sewing one end an artery or vein above a blocked coronary artery and the other end below the blockage, thereby allowing blood an alternative means to get to the heart. The arteries or veins used for the bypass (which are known as “grafts”) are usually obtained from the leg or the chest wall. Bypass surgery may not be possible if the coronary artery is heavily calcified or if the disease is very widespread. CABG can be done with or without connecting the patient to heart-lung machine, depending on the kind of blockages and surgeon’s decision.

Several new surgical approaches are being developed, which can potentially reduce the discomfort and complications associated with traditional bypass surgery. These are collectively referred to as being “minimally invasive.” In general, these approaches focus on performing bypass surgery though a very small chest incision and performing bypass surgery while the heart is still beating (ie, without the need for a heart/lung bypass machine).

OPCAB (Off Pump Coronary Artery Bypass)
The bypass surgery done without connecting the patient to of heart-lung machine or pump is called OPCAB.

MIDCAB (Minimally Invasive Direct Coronary Artery Bypass)
is bypass surgery done through a small cut (incision) in the lower part of the sternum (chest bone) only, rather than full cut across it. This type of surgery, which is possible in selected cases only, is associated with a small scar, lesser pain and faster recovery. Alternatively, this surgery can also be done through a small cut on the left side of the chest.

The location and degree of coronary artery blockages are determined before surgery by using a procedure called heart catheterization, or coronary angiogram. This procedure provides an outline, like a road map, of the arteries of the heart.

Factors favoring bypass surgery
Bypass surgery is often recommended over angioplasty when the left main coronary artery is narrowed by more than 50 percent, when angioplasty does not relieve angina, when many arteries are narrowed, or when the heart’s left ventricular pumping function is substantially impaired. Bypass surgery is also preferred over angioplasty in diabetic patients who have two or three vessels involved.

Benefits
Bypass surgery can very effectively relieve angina and can even prolong life in people with severe coronary heart disease, such as those with three-vessel involvement associated with impaired left ventricular pumping function. However, the success of bypass surgery on symptoms and on survival depends upon several factors, including the pattern and extent of arterial narrowing, the general progression of coronary heart disease over time, and the blood vessels used for bypass. In general, bypass surgery is more likely than angioplasty to provide complete revascularisation.

About 95 percent of people who have narrowing of several arteries have improvement or complete relief of their angina immediately after surgery. About 85 to 90 percent of people remain angina-free at one to three years after surgery, and about 75 percent of people remain angina-free or free of major coronary events at five years after surgery. By 10 years, about one-half of all grafted vessels become narrowed or occluded, and by 15 years, about 85 percent of grafted vessels become narrowed or occluded. These late events usually require a second surgery

Recovery from bypass surgery
It usually takes a while to recover from even routine bypass surgery. However, about 70 to 80 percent of people who have this surgery are eventually able to return to work; this is about the same as the percentage of people who are treated medically and are able to return to work. Factors that appear to have a role in a person’s ability to return to work are the presence or absence of angina after surgery, employment status before surgery and income, the function of the heart’s left ventricle, and age.


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Catheter Ablation (RFA)

Provided by Escorts Heart Institute
Brought to you by Healthbase

Catheter ablation has revolutionized the management of patients with certain heart rhythm disorders. Having evolved from arrhythmia surgery, catheter ablation was initially performed using high voltage direct current (DC); however, over the last decade, radio frequency current has supplanted DC as the energy source of choice and has made catheter ablation a first-line therapy for many rhythm disorders. It is an alternative to life-long drug therapy or surgery.

The procedure is done in a special room, called an electrophysiology (EP) lab, by doctors trained in the study and treatment of heart rhythms. Long, flexible wires, called catheters, are inserted into the veins of the leg, arm, and neck (and possibly into arteries in the leg) and positioned in the heart. Through these catheters, the doctor can record electrical signals that come from different parts of the heart. This is similar to an ECG, which records electrical activity from the body’s surface.

With, a special catheter, the area of the abnormality is located inside the heart. The catheter is placed at this area and, by delivering either electrical current or heat from radio frequency waves; the defective heart tissue is destroyed. This eliminates the source of the abnormal heart rhythm or extra pathways.

A catheter ablation can take several hours and does involve some risks. However, the doctor recommending this procedure believes these risks are small compared to the potential benefit for you. Your doctor will discuss this with you and answer any questions you have.


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