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Breast Augumentation

Provided by Wockhardt Hospital
Brought to you by Healthbase

If you have any or some of the underlying conditions, you may want to consider the option of breast reduction

  • your breasts appear too small in proportion to your body frame
  • often clothes that fit well around your hips are too large at the bustline
  • wearing a swimsuit or form- fitting top makes you feel self-conscious
  • post childbirth your breasts have become smaller and lost their firmness
  • weight loss has changed the size and shape of your breasts
  • one of your breasts is noticeably smaller than the other

During the consultation, you will be asked to point out the exact areas which you would like to see improved. This would include your desired breast size as well as anything else about your breasts that you would like to see improved. This will help your plastic surgeon to understand your expectations and determine whether they can realistically be achieved.

BREAST AUGMENTATION SURGERY EVALUATION

 

After examining your breasts, your plastic surgeon may perhaps take photographs for your medical record. In case, your breasts are sagging, a breast lift may be recommended in conjunction with augumentation.

A detailed medical history is very important, especially family history of breast cancer and previous mammograms.

No scientific evidence suggests that breast augmentation increases the risk of breast cancer. However, the presence of breast implants makes it more technically difficult to take and read mammograms. Especially, for women who perhaps because of their family history or other reasons are at higher risk for breast cancer.

Any plans to lose a significant amount of weight must be discussed with your plastic surgeon. You may be advised by your plastic surgeon to stabilize your weight prior to undergoing surgery.

Any plans of pregnancy in future, should be mentioned to your surgeon. Pregnancy can have an effect on the long-term results of your breast augmentation as it can alter your breast size in an unpredictable way. There is no evidence that pregnancy or your ability to breast-feed will be affected by breast implants, but any queries about these matters should be discussed with your plastic surgeon.

 

PREPARATION FOR SURGERY

Quite frequently, your plastic surgeon may recommend a baseline mammogram before surgery and another mammographic examination some months after surgery.

You will be asked to stop smoking well in advance of surgery if you smoke. Increased
bleeding can be caused by aspirin and certain anti-inflammatory drugs. It is therefore recommended that you avoid taking these medications for a period of time before surgery. Your surgeon will provide you with additional pre-operative instructions as well.

Breast augmentation is usually performed on an outpatient basis. Going home after a few hours may be permitted, unless you and your plastic surgeon have determined that you will stay in the hospital or surgical facility overnight.

 

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Breast Reduction

Provided by Wockhardt Hospital
Brought to you by Healthbase

WHO NEED BREAST REDUCTION?
 

If you have any or some of the underlying conditions, you may want to consider the option of breast reduction –

 

  • your breasts appear too large in proportion to your body frame
  • heavy, pendulous breasts having nipples and areolas pointed downward
  • one breast is much larger than the other
  • weight of your breasts cause pain in back, neck or shoulder
  • skin irritation beneath your breasts
  • tight bra straps resulting in indentations in your shoulders
  • size and weight of your breasts restrict the physical activity
  • the largeness of your breasts resulting in dissatisfaction or self-consciousness

During the consultation, you will be asked to point out the exact areas which you would like to see improved. This would include your desired breast size as well as anything else about your breasts that you would like to see improved.

This will help your plastic surgeon to understand your expectations and determine whether they can realistically be achieved.

Subsequent childbirth and breast feeding must be discussed with your surgeon.

 
BREAST REDUCTION SURGERY EVALUATION
 

After examining your breasts, your plastic surgeon will perhaps take measurements & photographs for your medical record. Factors like the size and shape of your breasts, the quality of your skin, and the placement of the nipples and areolas will be carefully evaluated.

A detailed medical history will be taken. Past and future weight loss should also be discussed.

 
HOW BREAST REDUCTION SURGERY IS PERFORMED
 

Quite frequently three incisions are involved in the method of reducing the breasts. The first incision is made around the areola. The second runs vertically from the bottom edge of the areola to the crease underneath the breast. The third incision follows the natural curve of the breast crease.

After the excess breast tissue, fat and skin have been removed by the surgeon, the nipple and areola are shifted to a higher position. Liposuction might be employed to improve the contour under the arm.

Generally, since the nipples and areolas remain attached to underlying mounds of tissue, the preservation of sensation is retained. This method might help to retain the ability to breast-feed, although this cannot be guaranteed.

Rarely, in case of extremely large breasts, the nipples and areolas may need to be completely detached before they are shifted to a higher level. In such cases, you may have to decide to sacrifice sensation and the possibility of breast-feeding in order to achieve your desired breast size.

UNDERSTANDING RISKS
 

A few potential complications that may be discussed with you would include bleeding, infection and reactions to anesthesia.

Post Reduction, it is possible that the breasts may not be perfectly symmetrical or the nipple height may vary slightly.

Desired minor adjustments, if any, can be made at a later time. In rare cases, permanent loss of sensation in the nipples or breasts may occur. In certain instances where incisions may have healed poorly, Revisionary Surgery is sometimes helpful.
In the case of injury to or loss of the nipple and areola which is usually an unlikely event, they usually can be satisfactorily reconstructed using skin grafts.

Following the advice and instructions of your plastic surgeon, both pre and post surgery is advisable as it can help to lessen certain risks.

A detailed information booklet will be provided with instructions and precautions for the immediate and early postoperative period.

This will also discuss the sequelae of Breast Reduction Surgery.

HOW WOULD THE INITIAL LOOK AND FEEL BE?
 

In the post surgery days, you will be encouraged to get out of bed for short periods of time. After considerable time, more comfortable movement will be possible.

Surgical drains, if any, will be removed in a day or two after surgery. At the same time your dressings may also be changed or removed. Wearing a support bra for a few weeks will be instructed. This has to be continued until the swelling and discoloration of your breasts diminishes. Generally, stitches will be removed in stages beginning about one week after surgery. You may realize that you feel less sensation in the nipple and areola areas, which is usually temporary. For sensation to return to normal it may take weeks, months or even more than a year. Your breasts may also require some time to assume a more natural shape. Incisions will initially be red or pink in color and will remain this way for many months following surgery.

BREAST REDUCTION & LIFT are in locations easily concealed by clothing, even low-cut necklines.

 
WHEN CAN MY NORMAL ACTIVITIES BE RESUMED?
 

Post breast reduction surgery, it is often possible to resume work within just a couple of weeks, depending upon your job. Quite often, you can resume most of your normal activities, including some of your mild exercises, after several weeks.

Experiencing some mild periodical discomfort during this time might persist, but such feelings are normal. Severe pains should be reported to your doctor.

Any sexual activity should be abstained from for a minimum of one week. Your plastic surgeon might advise you to wait longer. After that you must be extremely gentle with your breasts for at least the next six weeks.

 
HOW LONG WILL THE RESULTS LAST?
 

Your breast size should remain fairly constant unless you gain or loose a significant amount of weight or become pregnant. However natural factors like gravity and aging will eventually affect the size and shape of virtually every woman’s breasts.

But certainly without the excessive weight of large breasts, you may discover greater enjoyment in playing sports and engaging in physical activity.

Incisions from your breast reductions surgery will heal and fade over time. It is important to realvize, however, that the incision lines will be permanently visible, more so in some individuals that others. Fortunately the incisions for breast reduction are in locations easily concealed in clothing, even low-cut necklines.

 

 

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Abdominoplasty(Tummy Tuck)

Provided by Wockhardt Hospital
Brought to you by Healthbase

WHO NEED ABDOMINOPLASTY ?
 

If you have any or some of the underlying conditions, you may want to consider this option.

 

  • abdominal skin that is excess or sagging
  • a protruding abdomen that is out of proportion to the rest of your body
  • abdominal muscles that have been separated and weakened
  • excess fatty tissue that is concentrated in your abdomen

Any plans of pregnancy in future or of losing a significant amount of weight must be discussed with your plastic surgeon. Any resultant scarring from previous abdominal surgery may limit the results of your Abdominoplasty.

The surgeon will examine you and consider factors like the amount of excess skin and the state of your abdominal muscles.

These will determine the exact procedure that you will need.

POST SURGERY / PRE SURGERY RESULTS

Your firmer and flatter abdomen will enhance your body contour as a result of Abdominoplasty. Wearing certain styles of clothing will be easier and comfortable. You will be more confident about your appearance.

The incisions from the procedure will heal and fade over time. However, one needs to understand that the incision lines will be permanently visible. In a few cases they may eventually be only faint lines. Certain individuals may have incision lines that are more noticeable. Fortunately, the incisions for your Abdominoplasty are usually in locations concealed by most bathing suits and undergarments.

Wearing a support garment for several weeks may be instructed.
Your abdomen should remain firmer and flatter for many years subject to your gaining or losing a significant amount of weight or becoming pregnant. However, factors like gravity and the effects of aging will eventually take their toll.

In case, after a few years, you again become dissatisfied with the appearance of your abdomen, you may choose to undergo a second procedure to restore a more youthful body contour.

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Rhytidectomy – Facelift

Provided by Wockhardt Hospital
Brought to you by Healthbase

DO I NEED FACELIFT SURGERY?

If you have any or some of the underlying conditions, you may want to consider the option.

  • a deep line, or fold, running from the corner of your nose to the?corner of your mouth.
  • loss of a well-defined jaw line or jowls associated with youthfulness.
  • sagging of the ”highlight” areas of the cheekbones as well as deep wrinkles in the cheeks.
  • loose skin, wrinkles, vertical ”cords” or excess fatty tissue in the neck.

A facelift can be a solution to all of these problems. However, conditions like sagging eyebrows, excess skin and fatty deposits in the upper and lower eyelids or wrinkles around the mouth cannot be rectified by this surgery. Further information can be provided by your plastic surgeon if you have an interest in other procedures to treat these areas.

INDIVIDUAL CONSULTATION

In the initial stages of consultation, you may be asked by your plastic surgeon to look in a mirror and point out exactly what you would like to see improved. Specific areas should be discussed, as they may need different approaches and techniques.

You and your plastic surgeon may also discuss additional procedures that can be performed along with a facelift to address all the concerns you have identified. For instance, a facelift is often combined with a other surgeries like forehead lift, eyelid surgery, nose reshaping or chin implants.

HOW A FACE LIFT IS PERFORMED

 

How Rhytidectomy Facelift is performed Although several variations to the facelift procedure are possible, generally an incision is hidden in the natural contour of your ear. It then extends around the earlobe and back into the hairline. Post surgery, hair or makeup can easily conceal the incisions. Chances of a small incision hidden underneath your chin are also there.

Through these incisions, the surgeon is able to free the tissues from the underlying structures and ’tighten’ the face and neck. Excess fat can be sucked out to improve contour.

By this procedure a finer, fresher look is imparted to the face and neck.

UNDERSTANDING RISKS

Fortunately for patients significant complications from facelifts are infrequent. Year after year multitudes of people, who have undergone liposuction experience no major problems and are pleased with the results. However one should be aware of both the benefits and risks when considering surgery.

By following the advice and instructions of your plastic surgeon, both before and after surgery you can help minimize certain risks.

Some of the potential complications include:

  • Collection of blood under the skin which may have to be evacuated
  • Temporary weakness of some of the muscles of the face and eye
  • Scarring, especially behind the ear
  • Anesthesia related

A detailed information booklet will be provided with instructions and precautions for the immediate and early postoperative period. This will also discuss the sequeal of facelifts.

PREPARATION FOR SURGERY

You will be asked to stop smoking well in advance of surgery, in case, you are a smoker. Increased bleeding can be caused by aspirin and certain anti-inflammatory drugs. It is therefore recommended that you avoid taking these medications for a period of time before surgery.

Your surgeon will provide you with additional preoperative instructions as well. In case you have very short hair, you may consider letting it grow long enough to cover your incisions while they heal.

If you are overweight and you have a realistic desire to lose more than 15 pounds, you should discuss this with your surgeon.

The facelift may be performed as a day procedure or a one day admission.

These will not cause any discomfort and will be removed in a day or two. Going home after a few hours may be permitted, although some patients may stay overnight in the hospital for surgical facility.

RESULTS OF YOUR FACELIFT SURGERY

You may experience dramatic or subtle results of your facelift surgery. The results would depend on factors like how you looked before surgery as well as the specific goals that you and your plastic surgeon had set. The healing process is gradual, so you should expect to wait for at least several weeks for an accurate picture of your ”new look”. Additional minor changes, or settling, may occur over several months.

KEEP IN TOUCH WITH YOUR PLASTIC SURGEON

It is essential to have a regular follow-up with your plastic surgeon so that your progress can be regularly evaluated.

 

 

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CT – Scan

Provided by Escorts Heart Institute
Brought to you by Healthbase

CT (Computed Tomography) is a diagnostic test that combines the use of x-rays with computer technology. A series of x-rays beams from different angles around the body are used to show cross sectional images of the patient’s body. The images so obtained are assembled in a computer into a three- dimensional picture that can display organs, bones & tissues in great detail.

In spiral CT the examination table advances at a constant rate through the scanner gantry. While the x-ray tube rotates continuously around the patient, tracing a spiral path through the patient. This spiral path gathers continuous data with no gaps between images.

CT Angiography (CTA) is an examination that is used to visualize blood vessels in many areas of the body including the brain, kidneys, pelvis and the arteries serving the lungs. Compared to catheter angiography, which involves injecting contrast medium into an artery CTA is much less invasive & a more patient friendly procedure; contrast medium is injected into a vein rather than an artery.

Why is it done?
CT imaging offers detailed views of different types of tissue, including the lung, bones, soft tissues and blood vessels Using specialized equipment & expert technician to create CT scans of the body , radiologists can more easily diagnose problems such as cancers, cardiovascular diseases ,infectious diseases, trauma & musculoskeletal disorders.

How is it done?
Patient is asked to change into a gown before the examination & to remove jewellery, eyeglasses and metal objects depending on the part of the body that is being scanned.

The CT technician begins by positioning the patient on the CT table. The patient’s body is supported by the safety straps & is asked to lie very still and follow the instructions of the technician while the scanning is being performed. During the scanning, the technician can see, hear & speak to the patient at all times.

A CT examination often requires the use of different contrast agents to enhance the visibility of certain tissues or blood vessels. The contrast agent may be injected directly into the blood stream, swallowed or administered by enema, depending on the type of examination. Before administering the contrast agent the radiologist or technician will ask whether the patient has any allergies, especially to medications, iodine and whether the patient has a history of diabetes, asthma, a heart condition, kidney problem or thyroid conditions as these conditions indicate a higher risk of reaction to the contrast agent. Fortunately with the safety of the newest contrast agents the adverse effects are very rare.

The department of Radiodiagnosis & Imaging at EHIRC is well equipped to deal any emergency. A CT examination usually takes from 15 minutes to half an hour. When the exam is over, the patient may be asked to wait until the images are examined to determine if more images are needed.

For the CT Angiography contrast medium is injected into a vein with an automatic injector machine that controls the timing & rate of injection, which may continue during part of the time images are recorded. Afterwards the images are reviewed & some will be repeated, if necessary. The real work of CT angiography comes after the images are acquired, when powerful computer programs process the images & make it possible to display them in different ways.

When it is done/advised ?
It is done when clinicians prescribe it after examining patient and going through his/her records. The radiologists also advise for CT scan when routine x-rays and ultrasonography fail to provide adequate information. It is better device for interventional procedures.


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Robotic Surgery

Provided by Escorts Heart Institute
Brought to you by Healthbase

Surgeon on Robotic Console

Robotic System-daVinci Telemanipulation Robotic Cardiac Surgery is performed with the help of da Vinci telemanipulation system (Intutive Surgical, Inc, Mountain View, California, USA). The da Vinci system is computer enhanced system that consists of surgeon’s console and cart mounted manipulators.

 

Such endoscopic surgery works well for several types of operations (such as gall bladder removal and knee repairs) where part of the body to be operated upon motionless and surgical maneuvers to be performed are relatively simple. Thus endoscopic surgery has achieved only limited success in more complicated operations such as heart surgery, where the heart is beating and the necessary surgical maneuvers are complex.

 

The console houses the display system showing three dimensional pictures of the patient’s chest cavity, the surgeon sits away from the patient at the console and gets the view of inside of the patient’s chest cavity. The manipulators hold the tiny instrumentswhich go inside the patient’s chest. Surgeon’s hand movements are transmitted to these instruments facilitate different cardiac operations. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), mitral valve repairs and closure of atrial septal defects have been performed successfully through this technique.

IMA – LAD Anastomosis with Robotic Instruments

T-CAB (Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass) T-CAB is performing Coronary artery Bypass totally endoscopically without opening the chest at all. T-CAB is performed with the help of computer assisted robotic technology(da Vinci telemanipulation system). The robot is not autonomous. On the robotic console surgeon’s hand motions are captured, transformed and then transmitted to tiny instruments inside the chest cavity to perform complicated cardiac procedures. The surgeon’s had movements are transmitted to tiny instruments that facilitate and endoscopic anastomosis. The control is so perfect that cardiac surgeons are able to construct an anastomosis in the customary fashion without placing a hand inside the chest cavity. The surgeon sits at a console, peering into the chest with 3-dimensional vision and working with perfection. This technique has great cosmetic advantage as there are only 3-incisions, each only 1 cm in diameter on the side and lower part of chest instead of long cut in the front of the conventional surgery. A smaller incision (cut) also means less pain, faster healing and recovery and short hospital stay.


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Eat Smart

By Ms Melissa Aiyathurai-Johnston
Dietitian, Raffles Hospital

Brought to you by Healthbase

 

Food, food, glorious food! Food makes up a big part of our life. Besides providing nutritional benefits, food is also a source of enjoyment, an adventure and it tastes great!

Despite huge and beneficial gains in knowledge about nutrition over recent years, healthy eating has become harder because of the way we live and eat today. There is less reliance on home cooked meals and if we are not mindful, our meals may not be necessarily healthy. They may not be complete (e.g. not being served with enough vegetables) or the portion sizes may be too large.

In addition, the modern diet is usually overloaded with calories for energy compared to the amount we expend, has too much fat (especially saturated fat), sugar and salt and lacking in fruits, vegetables, fibre and dairy products.

This state of “over nutrition” has seen an alarming rise in the incidence of chronic lifestyle diseases. Today 1 out of 3 Singaporeans are overweight or obese which sets the scene for other conditions such as diabetes and heart disease. Excessive fat or salt and the lack of fibre have also been linked with an increase risk of certain cancers (e.g. breast, bowel, stomach), diabetes, stroke, hypertension and osteoporosis to name a few.

There is no secret to healthy eating. You just need to “eat smart”!

Enjoy a wide variety of foods
Add the grains and legumes
Trim the fat

Shake the habit – reduce your salt intake
Munch those fruits and vegetables
Alcohol – enjoy in moderation
Reduce your sugar intake
Track your weight

Enjoy a wide variety of foods
Variety is the spice of life! Everyday your body needs nutrients and other healthful substances (such as antioxidants) that only a wide variety of foods can provide. Most foods and beverages are made up of more than one nutrient, however no one food or food category has them all.

Add grains and legumes
These low fat foods should make up a large proportion of your meals. This group including bread, cereals, rice, pasta and other foods made from grains provides you with carbohydrate (your body’s fuel), B vitamins, fibre and a number of minerals. Legumes (e.g. peas, beans and lentils) provide you with good amounts of protein (important for vegetarians), B vitamins and fibre.

Having more soluble fibre in your diet, such as the type found in legumes will help to lower your cholesterol. The slow digesting carbohydrate they contain will also help those trying to control their weight or diabetics with their blood sugar control.

Trim the fat
Reducing your fat intake will lower your risk of becoming overweight which reduces your chance of certain conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, hypertension and certain cancers. Reducing your saturated fat intake will also go a long way to help keep your cholesterol in check.

Removing the skin from poultry and limit your intake of fatty meat such as pork belly, luncheon meat. When dining away from home choose more soup based dishes which are low in fat and limit those dishes made with coconut milk.

Shake the habit – reduce your salt intake
Too much salt has been linked to the development of high blood pressure or hypertension. The average diet contains more sodium than actually required.

One way to reduce your sodium intake is by tasting your food before adding salt. Also limit or avoid high sodium condiments such as soy sauce, oyster sauce, tomato ketchup. Opt for herbs, spices, chili or lime juice to add flavour instead.

Munch those fruit and vegetables
Besides being an excellent source of fibre, this low calorie, nutrient dense group provides you with essential vitamins and minerals, antioxidants, and phytochemicals that may not be present in other groups of food. Studies have shown that those people with a high intake of fruits and vegetables have a low rate of heart disease and cancer. Aim for 2 servings of fruit and vegetables daily.

Alcohol – enjoy in moderation
A moderate to heavy intake of alcohol has been associated with high blood pressure and certain cancers. An excessive intake can also lead to weight gain as gram for gram alcohol has almost twice the calories of carbohydrate or protein.

A safe intake would be no more than 2 standard drinks a day for women and no more than 4 for men with 2 alcohol free days per week.

Reduce the sugar intake
Food high in sugar tend to be “empty calories” as they have no essential fibre, vitamins or minerals and can sometimes displace more nutritious food. Most foods high in sugar also tend to also be high in fat, which if taken in excess can lead to weight gain. It is best to enjoy these foods in moderation.

Track your weight
A balance between the right food and regular exercise will ensure that your weight is healthy. Choosing low fat meals with ample carbohydrates, vegetables, fruit and protein will help you lose excessive weight, if you need to and help you to stay slim if you do not.

Be careful of fad diets or diets that offer fast weight loss as they more often do not change your eating habits and are nutritionally unbalanced. Once you go off them, the weight tends to come back straight away.

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©2006 Healthbase Online Inc. All rights reserved. | About us
The contents or materials provided in this website are for general information only and are not intended as medical advice.

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