overseas surgery


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Urinary diversion and reconstruction surgery

Urinary diversion is a way of surgically rerouting or diverting urine flow from its normal pathway in order to treat the condition of diseased or defective ureters, bladder or urethra, either temporarily or permanently. Using the surgical method of urinary reconstruction and diversion a new way is created for the patient to pass urine.

There are three main types of urinary diversion surgeries
• Ileal Conduit Urinary Diversion
• Indiana Pouch Reservoir
• Neobladder to Urethra Diversion

For all of these procedures, a portion of the small and/or large bowel is disconnected from the fecal stream and used for reconstruction.

Ileal Conduit Urinary Diversion: The ileal conduit urinary diversion surgery is used in patients who have had their bladder removed and is usually used in conjunction with radical cystectomy in order to control invasive bladder cancer. In this procedure, the ureters are surgically unattached from the bladder and a ureteroenteric anastomosis is made in order to drain the urine into a detached section of ileum (a part of the small intestine). The end of the ileum is then brought out through an opening (a stoma) in the abdominal wall. The urine is collected through a bag that attaches on the outside of the body over the stoma. The bag must be periodically emptied of urine.

Indiana Pouch Reservoir: The Indiana pouch surgery is used for patients who have had their urinary bladders removed as a result of bladder cancer, pelvic exenteration, bladder exstrophy or who are not continent due to a congenital, neurogenic bladder. In this procedure, a reservoir, or pouch, is created out of approximately two feet of the ascending colon and a portiom of the ileum (a part of the small intestine). The ureters are surgically removed from the bladder and repositioned to drain into the pouch. A piece of small intestine is brought out through a small opening in the abdominal wall called a stoma. Since a segment including the large and small intestines are utilized, also included is the ileal-ceceal valve. This is a one-way valve located between the small and large intestines which normally prevents the passage of bacteria and digested matter from re-entering the small intestine. After a period of several weeks, the body adjusts to the absence of this valve by absorbing more liquids and nutrients. Unlike other urinary diversion and reconstruction techniques, the Indiana pouch has the advantage of not using an external pouch adhered to the abdomen to store urine.

Neobladder to Urethra Diversion: With the Neobladder to Urethra Diversion procedure, the intent is to create a new bladder that mimics the storage function of a normal urinary bladder. The surgery makes a reservoir or pouch by utilizing a small part of the small intestine and connects the pouch to the urethra. The ureters are repositioned to drain into this pouch. As in normal urinary system, urine is able to pass from the kidney, to the ureters, to the pouch, and through the urethra out of the body.

For information about affordable urinary diversion and reconstruction surgery, check out Healthbase.

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ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY

Orthognathic surgery is surgery to reposition the maxilla (upper jaw or jawbone), the mandible (the lower jaw or jawbone), and the dentoalveolar segments (teeth and their sockets) to achieve facial and occlusal balance. One or more segments of the jaw(s) can be simultaneously repositioned to treat various types of malocclusions (bad bite) and jaw deformities. It is also used in treatment of congenital conditions like cleft palate. Bones can be cut and re-aligned, held in place with either screws or plates and screws.

Relationship between the maxilla and mandible

Orthognathic surgery is performed by an oral and maxillofacial surgeon almost always in collaboration with orthodontic treatment, often including braces before and after surgery, and retainers after the final removal of braces. Orthognathic surgery is often needed after reconstruction of cleft palate or other major craniofacial anomalies.

Unless medical conditions necessitate that the surgery be performed earlier, orthognathic surgery is often delayed until after all of the permanent teeth have erupted. To improve the aesthetic results, orthognathic surgery can be combined with soft tissue contouring in adult patients.

TYPES OF ORTHOGNATHIC PROCEDURES
•  Mandibular Sagittal Split Osteotomy
•  Maxillary osteotomy surgery or Le Fort Osteotomy (Le Fort I osteotomy, Le Fort II osteotomy and Le Fort III ostetomy)
•  Genioplasty (chin surgery)

DETAILS OF THE PROCEDURE
Usually surgery is performed under general anaesthetic and using nasal tube for intubation. The surgery might involve one jaw or both the jaws during the same procedure. The modification is done by making cuts in the bones of the mandible and / or maxilla and repositioning the cut pieces in the desired alignment. The surgeon is often able to go through the inside of the mouth without having to cut the skin.

Cutting the bone is called osteotomy and in case of performing the surgery on the two jaws at the same time it is called a bi-maxillary osteotomy (two jaws bone cutting) or a maxillomandibular advancement. The bone cutting is traditionally done using special electrical saws and burs, and manual chisels, and most recently by using ultra-sound waves (though not used on a wide scale). The maxilla can be adjusted using a ” Lefort I” level osteotomy. Sometimes the midface can be mobilised as well by using a Lefort II, or Lefort III osteotomy. These techniques are utilized extensively for children suffering from certain craniofacial abnormalities such as Crouzon syndrome.

The jaws will be wired together (inter-maxillary fixation) using stainless steel wires during the surgery to insure the correct re-positioning of the bones. This in most cases is released before the patient wakes up after the surgery.

COST OF ORTHOGNATHIC SURGERY
Register to Healhtbase to request a FREE quote for affordable orthognathic surgery overseas.

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Know Your BMI

Body mass index or BMI is a measure of the weight of a person in relation to their height.

BMI is often times used to determine whether or not a person is obese. As BMI increases, the risk of some diseases increases. A BMI of 30 or above is considered obese in adults, which means a person is at a higher risk for certain diseases, including heart disease, high blood pressure, and coronary artery disease (CAD).

BMI can be calculated using either the BMI calculator or the following BMI chart.

BMI Chart

The following table provides information about the extent of the risk factors that may be associated with your calculated BMI. However, it should be noted that BMI is only one of many factors used to predict the risk of developing a disease.

BMI             CLASSIFICATION       HEALTH RISK 
Under 18.5      Underweight *        Minimal 
18.5 - 24.9     Normal Weight        Minimal 
25 - 29.9       Overweight           Increased 
30 - 34.9       Obese                High 
35 - 39.9       Severely Obese       Very High 
40 and over     Morbidly Obese       Extremely High

*Note: A BMI below 18.5 suggests you may be below the safety minimum.

Medical tourism is an affordable option to seek surgery to treat obesity. For more information about medical tourism and to get your free quote log on to Healthbase.

Healthbase is a medical tourism and dental tourism facilitator that connects patients to leading JCI/JCAHO/ISO accredited hospitals and dental offices overseas through a secure, high-tech, information-rich web portal. Healthbase provides a wide range of medical procedures through its partner hospital network. Over two hundred medical procedures are available in various categories: cosmetic and plastic, orthopedic, dental, cardiac, and many more. The savings are up to 80 percent from typical US prices even after adding up the travel costs, hospital stay and other related expenses. Healthbase offers more than just procedural availability; we also provide customers with extensive information on medical treatments, hospital and doctor profiles to help them make an educated decision regarding their treatment; travel planning and booking; applying for medical/dental loan and much more.

To learn more, visit http://www.healthbase.com and login to view our extensive hospital profiles including pictures of operating rooms, patient rooms, doctor qualifications, and lots more. Get a FREE quote now!!

Note: All information presented here has been obtained from publicly available medical resources and is here for reference purposes only. Healthbase does not claim to be a medical professional and does not provide any advice on any issues relating to medical treatment.

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